Homework in online dating research

The psychological basis of a possible dysfunctional use is examined. For this purpose, the occurrence of dysfunctional use must first be shown.

This is also stated in the article and in the study introduction. This clears up the other notes from # 3.

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# 6 TheDad


17.11.2018, 14: 21h


Reply to # 5 by felix

“” With regard to statement # 3: You don’t actually have to investigate what you find as a presumption when you actually know that it IS a sales concept ..: “” ..

I can tell that the sentence was then too complicated ..

“” Psychological research is largely based on assumptions that are based on observations in everyday life or in the immediate environment. “” ..


To do this, one does not have to laboriously reinterpret known facts into such assumptions!

In order to be able to examine them then ..

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# 7 Anon4


11/18/2018, 12:08 pm

Reply to # 6 by TheDad

You can certainly also scientifically substantiate your “known facts” or are these facts a la “we do know that”?

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# 8 TheDad


11/18/2018, 11:07 p.m.


Reply to # 7 by Anon4

“” You can certainly substantiate your “known facts” in a scientifically founded manner or are they facts like “you know that”? “” ..

Of course, these are facts á la

“You know that”!

Whether it’s Facebook, Twitter or Grindr ..

These companies, acting as “social media”, make a living from selling information to third parties.

And in this case, this does not mean the transfer of personal data to a potential date partner, but the transfer of your IP address to an advertising customer.

It is therefore in the original interest of the Grindr company that you are on this portal as often as possible, because by being there you generate sales through these advertising customers for Grindr, and that’s what makes them live.

What was the position of the question?

“” I would like to investigate whether there can be excessive and dysfunctional use of these applications and if so, how this is shown and which variables are “” connected?

Paracelsus answered this question with the sentence

“All things are poison and nothing is without poison. The dose alone means that a thing is not poison.”

This is where the reward center comes into play, and which success stories trigger how many of the happiness hormones that we need as a daily dose …

The daily dose of serotonin can be triggered by an orgasm.

The same dose is also achieved with a 100 gram bar (at least 45% cocoa content) of chocolate.

So you could either fuck 5 times or eat 5 bars of chocolate to check which thing is healthier ..

Or just know it already ..

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# 9 Anon4


19.11.2018, 6:45 a.m.

Reply to # 8 by TheDad

“Of course these are facts á la

‘You know that’! “

But felt facts are not enough. If scientific research didn’t investigate things that “you just know”, you wouldn’t know anything about serotonin or the health effects of sexuality today:

“We all know that the sexual act is only there to beget children! No further research necessary!”

“Everyone knows that the brain is there to cool the body. What else do you want to research ?!”

Reply »| Direct link »

# 10 TheDad


19.11.2018, 10: 03h


Reply to # 9 by Anon4

“Of course these are facts á la

‘You know that’! “


Apparently you are overwhelmed by irony ..

“” Felt facts are just not enough. “” ..

Just as there is a collective memory, there is also a “herd knowledge”, which rests on the foundation of experiences and which represents much more than mere “felt facts” ..

Obviously, many people still fail to transfer information from one area, here economics, to another, here sociology ..

A fact that companies and corporations live from the sale of products is therefore always much more than just “a felt fact” ..

You can’t do that with one

“But we don’t yet know that from this sociological perspective”

do not really wipe it off the table in order to tinker with a study basis which, when viewed in the light, combines wrong basic assumptions into a questionnaire, the results of which will then be useless because of the wrong basic assumptions.

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Individual emotions and culture-specific ideals of love in online dating

Review by Vanessa Kleinschnittger

An ethnography of online dating.

377 pages, ISBN 978-3-8376-1455-8, € 29.80

Abstract: Julia Dombrowski deals with the phenomenon of online dating in her dissertation from an ethnological perspective. She puts a focus on emotions, especially romantic love, and addresses the question of how the users of dating sites agree on culture-specific ideas of love and individual experiences when looking for a partner. In doing so, Dombrowski deviates from the existing research on online dating, which focuses primarily on the criticism of capitalism, and seeks access to the topic through the subjective emotional experience of online dating by the users themselves.

Online dating, although a widespread form of partner search, has so far received little attention, both in social assessments and in academic debates, and when it does, a critical attitude is often revealed. In her book, Julia Dombrowski approaches the subject from the previously missing perspective of the ethnologist.

As the focus for her work, the author has chosen a subject area that most of the existing research on online dating avoids as much as possible: emotions, especially romantic love. In principle, to be interpreted as a central moment within the context of partner search, couple relationships and love, dealing with emotions is always characterized by insoluble difficulties: The number of positions is numerous and a clear localization within the field is difficult. Nonetheless, Dombrowski puts emotions at the center of her interest.

Accordingly, she begins her book with a presentation and classification of the various theoretical approaches to the subject of emotions. Based on this, Dombrowski formulates her own conception: She understands emotions in principle as socio-cultural phenomena, as subjective evaluations of a situation, embedded in a cultural system (see p. 38 ff.). On the one hand, the author neglects to specifically locate herself within the field of emotion research, and thus escapes any compulsion to argue. On the other hand, with this definition, however, she is focusing on an extremely interesting point with regard to online dating: How do online daters reconcile contradictions between cultural ideas of love and the form of partner search they have chosen?

In the second part of the book, the author presents the results of her study on online dating. In the discussion of the state of research on online dating, Dombrowski also goes into the work of Eva Illouz (Eva Illouz: Emotions in Times of Capitalism. Frankfurt / Main: Suhrkamp 2006), which is the theoretical basis of almost every academic study of online dating represents. Illouz describes the search for a partner on the internet as a process characterized by economic and psychological structures, in which the private self becomes a public one, which has to position itself within capitalist (single) market structures. Subsequently, Dombrowski turned her gaze to the incompatibility of these processes with the concept of romantic love, as stated by Illouz, and criticized their “constant devaluation of online dating against the background of a critique of capitalism” (p. 68). The author’s ethnological interest in online dating puts the subjective perception and interpretation of the user at the center. In her study, she uses ethnological and ethnographic methods to investigate the practice and emotional experience of online dating.

Dombrowski approaches the phenomenon through both (narrative) interviews and participatory observation, both online and offline. For this purpose, she observed the dating activities of other users as a member of partner exchanges, initiated interviews there and conducted them by e-mail, and accompanied online daters with their activities on the computer offline or conducted face-to-face interviews. It must be viewed critically that many of their informants, based on their own circle of acquaintances, have an academic educational background. It is therefore questionable whether the results are not distorted or one-sided due to the high level of reflection and linguistic expression of the interviewees. In addition, the statements made by Dombrowski’s online daters are mainly used as a narrative, purely descriptive underpinning of their statements, a systematic evaluation of the statements, e.g.

Study in online dating research

You should know that. But if you comb your hair and present yourself a little better, you could be a six. So use a different picture. “We are like a little fairy on your shoulder to help you.

And what if this is my absolute favorite picture of myself?

Then your favorite picture may be the picture that you perceive as the best picture of yourself. Basically, Tinder does exactly the same thing, except that they say “Smart Photo”. They pick out the image of you that performs best and pull it forward. Why are you doing that? Because it’s difficult to judge yourself.

Isn’t that superficial? Especially for a company that prides itself on making dating more personal?

Everyone needs a score to match you. We’re just more transparent about this. What’s the alternative? Matching people by a score that supposedly doesn’t exist? Just so that you can believe in your fairy tale world that you will be matched with someone because we think that this is the right one for you? No. You have been matched by an algorithm because you have the same score. Of course, it’s more complicated than that, but that’s how any matchmaking site works. But like I said, most women get a four, so I wouldn’t be too worried about their ego.

Woman is insulted on Tinder because of her Asos dress – the online retailer reacts brilliantly

What if it’s a shy guy with a small belly?

If he doesn’t want to know his score then I would suggest that he go back to Tinder, where he can then complain that he only sees women with bad pictures because his pictures are bad. Because that’s how it works, but they don’t want to publish it. We do.

So two are matched with two and four with fours?

It’s more complicated than that, but if we had published all the information it would have been too complicated.

Who decides who will be matched with whom?

In the beginning we still had human matchmakers. Because you can spend hours sorting people according to their interests – but that’s not how it works in real life. In real life, you see someone and you like something on the other person’s face, maybe the way they smile. That is gut feeling. Our brain is trained to determine what it finds attractive. So at the beginning we asked our matchmakers to just rely on their gut instinct. Not based on what they find attractive, but on that feeling that you also have when you see a couple on the street and think: “They go well together!” And then we looked at the results and gave them our feedback. We did that for a year and a half until we had enough data to write an algorithm.

But are interests and hobbies also taken into account?

The picture makes up 95 percent. We have an assessment feature where we ask our users to rate pictures – and only pictures. We use the results to improve the matching.

Woman travels across the United States for a Tinder date – and it was worth it

If I rate a lot of blonde men as good, will I be matched with a lot of blonde men?

It’s not that easy. We do a cluster analysis, which is based primarily on people whose opinions are very divided. Imagine we have two different women and therefore two different images. They both have an average score of 2.5 out of five. But one of them got loads of twos and threes and the other got loads of ones and fives. Then one of them is the average and the other is polarized. We are not interested in the one that is average. The people we care about are the ones who divide opinion. Because they probably belong to a certain type.

Investigation into online dating research

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Tinder and dating apps: online dating works differently



Why boring couples arise in online dating

Published on 05/05/2016 | Reading time: 4 minutes

Sexually transmitted diseases are on the rise in Germany. In 2014 there were over 5,700 new syphilis infections, the number has more than doubled since 2009. Are apps to blame?

Dating apps are one of the most popular ways to find a new partner. Now a study shows: virtually different couples arise than in real encounters. That has to do with the time factor.

“It’s incredibly hot.” ​​Less than a second later, the buddy swipes to the right on his own smartphone. The Tinder user’s profile got a Like. The next “somehow doesn’t work,” says the best friend afterwards. The swipe to the left is inevitable. The woman is out of the race. A date is impossible.

Online dating can only take a few seconds today. Then it is clear whether the good buddy should meet this woman or not. The common search for the right partner replaces small talk during a cozy evening on the couch. Dating apps like Tinder are then activated on the smartphone – and it is swiped left or right.

Which criterion decides which direction it goes. The look, says the online service OKCupid. In a survey, the portal found that just under ten percent were even interested in the self-description of users. Above all, the external values ​​count.

Thanks to these dating methods, beautiful people get together more and more often with other beautiful people, argues the American data analysis portal Priceonomics. In this way, fewer and fewer couples would emerge who are not visually attractive – but who find themselves attractive in their inner values.

Priceonomics refers to a study by the University of Austin in the US state of Texas. It shows that the cliché “opposites attract” does not apply without reservation. Rather, it is the case that people who know little about each other join forces among equals – research calls this phenomenon “associative pairing”. Social status, education, skin color, personality – and of course the appearance of such quick pairings are similar.

But the longer people have known each other before pairing, the weaker this effect becomes. Specifically, the researchers examined 167 couples in a long-term study. The partners – who had known each other for different lengths of time – were rated by strangers. The question: How attractive are the respective partners?

The result: couples who barely knew each other before dating were rated as equally attractive. In contrast, couples who were already friends before the beginning of their relationship were rated significantly differently in terms of their attractiveness.

Other dating experiments support the theory of assortative pairing: in one case, students at Austin University were asked before the semester how much they wanted their fellow students. The students were pretty much in agreement as to who, in their opinion, was hot or not.

The researchers repeated the experiment three months later. The result: the ratings were now significantly different. Time had mixed up student dating desires. The personal opinion about the non-external properties now played a much stronger role.

But that’s exactly the amount of time you don’t have with dating apps like Tinder. In most cases, the couples have never met before. The result is that partners are becoming more and more similar, argues Priceonomics. In addition, online dating is becoming increasingly popular.

Sexually transmitted diseases are on the rise in Germany. In 2014 there were over 5,700 new syphilis infections, the number has more than doubled since 2009. Are apps to blame?

Dating apps like Tinder do not just give users possible new dates by chance and could thus exacerbate the phenomenon.

Investigation directly into online dating research

Most people perceive laughter as a positive part of their everyday life, the vernacular even ascribes it to be health-promoting. But the assessment of strangers’ laughter differs considerably in the population, and a certain proportion even suffer from a considerable fear of being “laughed at”. This trait, known in personality psychology as “gelotophobia”, occupies our guest, the psychologist Kay Brauer, as does gelotophilia (the joy of being laughed at) and catagelasticism (the joy of laughing at other people). Among other things, he investigates in psychological studies how these personality dimensions influence romantic relationships. In addition, he has dealt with playfulness in adulthood and researches the imposter phenomenon, in which those affected cannot relate their own successes to their own performance and therefore see themselves as alleged “impostors”.

Jens B. Asendorpf and Franz Neyer: Psychology of Personality, 5th, completely revised. Ed., Berlin: Springer, 2012, ISBN 978-3-642-30263-3.

Philipp Yorck Herzberg and Marcus Roth: Personality Psychology. Basic knowledge of psychology. Springer VS, Heidelberg 2014, ISBN 978-3-531-17897-4.

Dursun, P., Dalgar, I., Brauer, K., Yerlikaya, E., & Proyer, R. T. (in press). Assessing dispositions towards ridicule and being laughed at: Development and initial validation of the Turkish PhoPhiKat-45. Current Psychology. doi: 10.1007 / s12144-017-9725-2

Proyer, R. T., Brauer, K., & Wolf, A. (in press). Assessing other-directed, lighthearted, intellectual, and whimsical playfulness in adults: Development and initial validation of a short form of the OLIW using self- and peer ratings. European Journal of Psychological Assessment.

Proyer, R. T., Tandler, N., & Brauer, K. (2019). Playfulness and creativity: A selective review. In S. R. Luria, J. Baer, ​​& J. C. Kaufman (Eds.), Creativity and humor (pp. 43-56). San Diego, CA: Academic Press. doi: 10.1016 / B978-0-12-813802-1.00002-8

Brauer, K., & Proyer, R. T. (2018). To love and laugh: Testing actor-, partner-, and similarity effects of dispositions towards ridicule and being laughed at on relationship satisfaction. Journal of Research in Personality, 76, 165-176. doi: 10.1016 / j. jrp.2018.08.008

Proyer, R. T., & Brauer, K. (2018). Exploring adult playfulness: Examining the accuracy of personality judgments at zero-acquaintance and an LIWC analysis of textual information. Journal of Research in Personality, 73, 12-20. doi: 10.1016 / j. jrp.2017.10.002

Proyer, R. T., Gander, F., Bertenshaw, E., & Brauer, K. (2018). The positive relationships of playfulness with indicators of health, activity, and physical fitness. Frontiers in Psychology, 9. doi: 10.3389 / fpsyg.2018.01440

Carretero-Dios, H., Ruch, W., Agudelo, D., Platt, T., & Proyer, R. T. (2010). Fear of being laughed at and social anxiety: A preliminary psychometric study. Psychological Test and Assessment Modeling, 52, 108-124.

Chan, Y.-C. (2016). Neural correlates of deficits in humor appreciation in gelotophobics. Scientific Reports, 6. doi: 10.1038 / srep34580

Edwards, K., Martin, R. A., & Dozois, D. J. A. (2010). The fear of being laughed at, social anxiety, and memories of being teased during childhood. Psychological Test and Assessment Modeling, 52, 94-107.

Furler, K., Gomez, V., & Grob, A. (2013). Personality similarity and life satisfaction in couples. Journal of Research in Personality, 47, 369-375. doi: 10.1016 / j. jrp.2013.03.002

Führ, M., Platt, T., & Proyer, R. T. (2015). Testing the relations of gelotophobia with humor as a coping strategy, self-ascribed loneliness, reflectivity, attractiveness, self-acceptance, and life expectations. European Journal of Humor Research, 3, 84-97.

Hall, J.A. (2017). Humor in romantic relationships: A meta-analysis. Personal Relationships, 24, 306-322. doi: 10.1111 / pere.12183

Hofmann, J., Platt, T., Ruch, W., & Proyer, R. T. (2015). Individual differences in gelotophobia predict responses to joy and contempt. SAGE Open, 1-12. doi: 10.1177 / 2158244015581191

Kohlmann, C.-W., Eschenbeck, H., Heim-Dreger, U., Hock, M., Platt, T., & Ruch, W. (2018).

Fear of being laughed at in children and adolescents: Exploring the importance of overweight, underweight, and teasing. Frontiers in Psychology, 9. doi: 10.3389 / fpsyg.2018.01447

Malouff, J. M., Thorsteinsson, E. B., Schutte, N. S., Bhullar, N., & Rooke, S. E. (2010). The Five-Factor Model of personality and relationship satisfaction of intimate partners: A meta-analysis. Journal of Research in Personality, 44, 124-127. doi: 10.1016 / j. jrp.2009.09.004

Platt, T., Proyer, R. T., Hofmann, J., & Ventis, W. L. (2016). Gelotophobia in practice and the implications of ignoring it. European Journal of Humor Research, 4, 46-56. doi: 10.7592 / EJHR2016. 4. 2. plate

Kay Brauer: PhD student in psychology (@Ka_Brau on Twitter)

Research in online dating research

The corona crisis makes getting to know each other hardly possible; data can only be carried out virtually without any risk. Many people want a partnership right now.

Where to fall in love Not only many young people are stuck in the dilemma between dating mood, infection panic, rule breaking and lack of opportunities. Closed pubs and discos, no festivals or concerts, no parties with friends, no swimming pool or museum.

Hardly any meeting at work, school or university. No Abitfahrt, no beach vacation, hardly any club life. Some are preparing for a dreary, flirtless summer, others are discovering online dating for themselves. Corona has made getting to know each other more difficult and the view of the couple relationship has changed.

The virus tests partnerships for their durability and puts families to an acid test. 27 percent of people living in a partnership are unsure whether their relationship will survive the crisis, according to a survey of more than 700 German citizens on behalf of the Parship dating platform.

Great distance, great closeness or the special challenge of balancing childcare and work are crisis factors. At the same time, the question “Who do I spend my quarantine with?” Has become the new “Who do I take to a desert island?”

According to the survey, half of the singles look forward to more time for themselves, especially women and 50 to 69 year olds. However, more than a third of single people want a partner by their side during the state of emergency. Of young adults between the ages of 18 and 29, 45 percent said they were afraid of being alone.

It is quite possible, says the sociologist Kai Dröge, who works at the Institute for Social Research in Lucerne and researched online dating at the University of Frankfurt, that a romanticized idea of ​​mutual isolation has become established.

“You reinterpret the forced togetherness and transform it into an isolation in self-created togetherness,” says Dröge. It is not only this image that awakens the desire for a partnership in many during the limited contact options – and even turns people into active seekers who have so far only loosely looked for potential partners or who have given them the opportunity to flirt.

“The crisis situation has also thrown people back to more existential questions, from which they are otherwise distracted in everyday life,” says Dröge. “Because contacts had to be restricted, a new awareness has developed of how important social contacts are – be it just at work, friends or a partner.” According to another survey of Parship members, 24 percent were “through.” the crisis become aware of what they are really looking for in a relationship ”.

In the week before the contact was blocked, he got to know someone while going out, says a man in his 30s from Frankfurt, who is otherwise more defensive in the single market. At first, because of the new regulation and the uncertainty, they did not meet, but exchanged messages for weeks, then telephoned later.

The two had only met again for the first time two weeks ago. “It was a long time since I had exchanged ideas with anyone before physicality came along,” he says, and feels reminded of teenage times. She has been on a dating portal for a long time and also likes to look around at events, occasionally has appointments that have not resulted in anything serious for a while, says a 30-year-old Offenbacher. She would have missed that.

Despite the ban on contact, she arranged for a single meeting via the portal in mid-April, which she has described as “successful and potentially long-term” to date. She does not rule out that the lack of alternatives has increased her willingness to get to know each other better.

Dating portals are currently experiencing growth. Since calendar week 13, when the contact restrictions were extended, about a quarter more messages had been sent at Parship than in the previous year, new registrations were a tenth above the previous year’s level. The many young newcomers are noticeable.

The C-Date platform, which generally appeals to a younger audience, recorded an increase of around 40 percent in new registrations, and here too the average was raised from the age group 18 to 24.

Analysis within online dating research

PD Dr. Andreas Schmitz, M. A.

Institute for Political Science and Sociology

Sociology Department

University of Bonn

Lennéstr. 27

53113 Bonn

A simulation study on the spread of infections that suggests massive reductions in social contacts:

What social functions can fear have?

Lecture “Fear as a Modern Lifestyle” at the 40th Congress of the German Society for Sociology, TU Berlin (at least planned for September 2020)

Lecture “Modeling Social Distance” as part of the Aachner Sociology lecture series (new date is sought)

Stamm, I., Schmitz, A., Norkus, M., & Baur, N. (2020). Themed Section Introduction: Process-Oriented Analysis. Canadian Review of Sociology (Revue Canadienne de Sociologie.), 57 (2).

Schmitz, A. & Warzok, T. (2020): Geometric Data Analysis: Advanced Issues and Current Developments. In: Paul Atkinson, Sara Delamont, Alexandru Cernat, Joseph W. Sakshaug & Richard A. Williams (Eds .: The SAGE Encyclopedia of Research Methods. (Forthcomming).

Together with Richard Münch, a DFG project was successfully acquired in 2019. Further information follows.

Together with Nina Baur and Clemens Kroneberg, conference funding from the Thyssen Foundation was successfully acquired in 2020.

Together with an international team of researchers, the network “Social Space, Fields and Relationality (SSFR) in Contemporary and Historical Social Analysis. Research Network” will be funded by the National Academic Exchange Agency (NAWA.GOV.PL) from 2020

Workshop “Methodologies in Quantitative Social Science” postponed. A new appointment is currently being sought.

Accepted ad hoc group “Data quality of ‘Digital Trace’ Data. Current findings and connections to social science traditions” together with Jan Riebling and in collaboration with Fabian Flöck & Katrin Weller (GESIS, Cologne) at the 40th Congress of the German Society for Sociology, TU Berlin (will be carried out digitally in September 2020)

Accepted ad hoc group “Sexual abuse in the Catholic Church – structural, cultural and praxeological approaches” together with Andre Armbruster at the 40th Congress of the German Society for Sociology, TU Berlin

(will be carried out digitally in September 2020)

Teaching in the winter semester 2020/21: Thinking and research styles in qualitative social research (master’s seminar)

PhD studies in sociology at the Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg with Prof. Dr. Münch. The subject of the dissertation was the rational choice theory as a special case of the habitus / field theory using the example of the individualistic paradigm of “partner choice as acting in structures”. Since October 2013 post-doc position with Prof. Dr. Blasius. In the 2015 summer semester, he represented the lectures of Prof. Dr. Blasius (multivariate statistics). In the winter semester 2016/17 he represented the lecture of Prof. Dr. Albrecht (sociological theory). Habilitation at the Philosophical Faculty of the University of Bonn with the topic “Current challenges of habitus field theory: methodology, theory and empiricism” on July 4th, 2017. In the winter semester 2018/2019 guest lecturer at the Collaborative Research Center SFB 1256 “Re-Figuration of Spaces” at the Technical University of Berlin. Representation of the professorship for sociology with a focus on methods of empirical social research at RWTH Aachen University from winter semester 2019/20.

Internet sociology, digital markets

Post-migrant society

Sociology of fear

Social inequality and differentiation

The field of sociology

Blasius, Jörg; Lebaron, Frédéric; Le Roux, Brigitte & Schmitz, Andreas (Eds.) (2017): Investigations of Social Space. (Edited Volume in preparation)

Schmitz, Andreas (2016): The Structure of Digital Partner Choice. A Bourdieusian Perspective. Springer International. (Http://www.springer.com/de/book/9783319435299).

Review: by Tomasz Warczok in Acta Sociologica (http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0001699318781485?journalCode=asja&)

Review: by Milan Bouchet-Valat in Population (https://www.cairn-int.info/article-E_POPU_1801_0162–schmitz-andreas-2017-the-structure-of.htm)

Schmitz, Andreas & Bayer, Michael (2018): “Structural Psychology”. On the relationality of habitus, psyche and social space. In: Berliner Journal für Soziologie, 27 (3–4), pp. 455–483.

Schmitz, Andreas & Barth, Alice (2018): Subtle paths of intergenerational transmission. Psychic aspects of habitus formation in adolescents. In: Sociologia Internationalis (forthcoming).

Witte, Daniel; Schmitz, Andreas & Schmidt-Wellenburg, Christian (2018): Orderly Relationships? Diversity and Unity of Relational Thought in Sociology. In: Berliner Journal für Soziologie, 27 (3–4), pp. 347–376.

Schmitz, Andreas & Witte, Daniel (2017): The nation state and the global field of power, or: How field theory can be freed from its methodological nationalism. In: Journal for theoretical sociology, 6 (2), pp. 156–188.

Schmitz, Andreas (2017): An Interview with Frédéric Lebaron on the Genesis and Principles of Bourdieusian Sociology. The Real Is (Still) Relational. In: Theory, Culture and Society, 35 (6), pp. 113-130.

Schmitz, Andreas & Flemmen, Magne (2017): Social Class, Symbolic Domination, and Angst. The Example of the Norwegian Social Space.

Investigation in online dating research

Norwegian consumer advocates today published a new study on online advertising in which they warn of the consequences of illegal data collection. Based on the results, consumer and other civil society organizations in Europe want to urge their authorities to end the highly questionable practices of the online advertising industry.

Dating apps, cycle trackers or seemingly harmless keyboard apps: Norwegian privacy advocates took a closer look at ten popular smartphone apps, including Tinder, My Days and Wave Keyboard. All of the apps examined passed personal and usually intimate data on to advertising networks or similar third-party providers, who use them to create individualized user profiles – a practice that is illegal in this form in Europe.

“These practices have gotten out of hand and are in breach of the EU’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR),” says Finn Myrstad, who is responsible for digital policy at Forbrukerrådet, Norway. The extent of this tracking makes it impossible for users to consciously and freely decide how personal data is collected, shared and used, according to Myrstad.

“Out of Control” is aptly the title of Forbrukerrådet’s study published today. The Norwegians received support from the security company Mnemonic, the tracking expert Wolfie Christl from Cracked Labs and the data protection activist Max Schrems and his NGO noyb. Together they were able to prove that the online advertising industry collects large amounts of personal data illegally and thus systematically violates European data protection law. As a result, consumers are particularly susceptible to manipulation and exploitation, warn the researchers.

In the case of the MyDays period app, for example, the report criticizes the fact that the location information determined by GPS users is shared with a number of third parties who earn their money with behavior-based advertising and profiling. The dating app OkCupid, on the other hand, shares highly personal data on sexuality, drug use, political views and more with the analytics company Braze.

Many players in the online advertising industry collect information from a variety of sources, including web browsing, connected devices, and social media use. When this data is combined, a lot of information about the users can be derived from it. From this alone, conclusions can partly be drawn about the sexual inclination of individuals or what political opinion they represent, as was already shown in a 2015 study.

This massive commercial surveillance is contrary to fundamental rights and can be used for a variety of harmful applications. Widespread surveillance also has the potential to permanently undermine consumer confidence in digital services, warns Finn Myrstad.

A study published by Amnesty International last year came to a similar conclusion. The NGO warned at the time that data-driven business models pose a serious threat to human rights such as freedom of expression and speech, freedom of thought, and the right to equality and non-discrimination.

The Norwegian Consumer Council has now announced that it will take legal action against the industry’s data collection mania. He wants to file formal complaints against, among others, Grindr, a dating app for gay, bi, trans and queer people as well as companies that have received personal data via the app, to the Norwegian data protection authority for violations of the GDPR. These companies include Twitter’s MoPub, AT & T’s AppNexus, OpenX, AdColony and Smaato.

The Norwegian consumer advocates are calling on companies to develop alternatives to the currently dominant online advertising system. For this purpose, they propose technologies that do not depend on the collection and processing of personal data.

Furthermore, they turn to politicians because, in their opinion, consumers have only very limited opportunities to defend themselves against the rampant use of their data. It is up to the authorities to take effective measures to protect consumers from the illegal use of personal data.

Our work at netzpolitik.org is financed almost exclusively by voluntary donations from our readers. With an editorial staff of currently 15 people, this enables us to journalistically work on many important topics and debates in a digital society. With your support, we can clarify even more, conduct investigative research much more often, provide more background information – and defend even more fundamental digital rights!

Felix Richter is an intern in the editorial team from November to January.

Homework directly into online dating research

Media psychologist Nicola Doring describes self-portrayal as follows:

“One speaks of self-portrayal behavior (…) to express that we usually shape our social behavior in such a way that we make a favorable impression on those people who are currently present or to whom our current behavior could become known leave. A favorable impression is not necessarily a positive impression, but an impression that conforms to the goal. ”86

This means that people consciously use their actions and behavior in order to put themselves in a good light and thus to look good in front of others. Doring’s definition can also be related to user behavior when searching for a partner on the Internet. There, in particular, self-portrayal plays a decisive role, since every Internet platform offers users the opportunity to present themselves to other users and, in particular, to impress them with positive self-descriptions. However, these are sometimes also necessary in order to stand out from the crowd of potential partners. A competent application of strategies of self-portrayal, such as the “idealization of one’s own appearance that increases the attractiveness, can break down contact thresholds in computer-mediated communication.87” Textual self-portrayal processes 88 “take place by describing oneself, by writing about oneself or through self-narratives. ”89 Self-portrayal is thus subjective and can in some cases be manipulated.90 Information can be glossed over, embellished or even incorrectly presented. Untrue self-portrayals show gender and trait-specific patterns.91 For example, men on their online dating profile often overestimate their body size and women systematically underestimate their weight.92 Users try to extract physical deficits in order to leave a positive impression.

Psychologists Aronson, Wilson, and Akert define self-expression as “trying to present ourselves as who we are or who we want other people to believe we are; this happens through the words we speak, our non-verbal behavior as well as our actions.93 “Not only identity, but also the self-portrayal that is related to it is therefore also dependent on social interaction. With this strategy, users present themselves on dating platforms in order to find a suitable partner. The way in which this act of self-expression is carried out differs considerably from that mentioned by Aronson, Wilson and Akert. In relation to the non-verbal behavior and actions mentioned here, the “disembodiment of self-expression processes” 94 on the Internet must be mentioned. Online dating is purely text-based and, in most cases, voiceless.95 There is no physical expression, as the persons are not present as tangible bodies and are thus, to a certain extent, dematerialized as subjects.96 This leads to aspects such as posture , Facial expressions and gestures can be represented by media such as images and text as a substitute.97 In addition, the platforms offer various options for information in which, for example, the character, appearance and personal strengths can be described in such detail that there there is a lot of space for self-expression. All moments of human interaction – and the provision of an online profile can be called interaction – contain processes of self-presentation.98 “Self-presentation is thus permanently present and difficult to control in face-to-face communication. Internet-specific self-portrayal, on the other hand, can be controlled better in some areas. For example, in the case of an e-mail contact, “specifically prepared messages can be transmitted at selected times.” 99

1 http://www.focus.de/digital/computer/medien-internet-wichtigstes-medium-vor-tv-und- buch_aid_409120.html (as of March 12, 2013).

2 Schulz, Florian: Connected résumés between new resource relationships and traditional gender roles. Empirical analyzes of partner choice on the Internet and the division of labor in the household as a process. Wiesbaden 2010, p. 120.

4 Purer, Heinz: Journalism and Communication Studies. A manual. Konstanz 2003, p. 91.

5 http://www.singleboersen-vergleich.de/about.htm (as of March 12, 2013).

6 Cf. Buhler-Ilieva, Evelina: A mouse click away from me. Looking for love relationships on the internet. Marburg 2006, p. 105.

7 http://www.ihr-singleboersen-vergleich.de/partnersuche-im-internet/ (as of March 12, 2013).

8 http://www.singleboersen-vergleich.de/presse/online-dating-markt-2011-2012-de.pdf (as of March 12, 2013).

9 http://de.statista.com/statistik/daten/studie/153231/umfrage/online-datingportale-mit-den-hoechsten- investments-in-tv-werbung / (as of March 14, 2013).

10 http://www.spiegel.de/gesundheit/diagnose/mediumsalter-der-deutschen-wird-deutlich-anstieg-a- 868019.

Study into online dating research

Conformity describes the conformity of a person with the norms of a society. In practical terms, this means that one conforms to the social norm and subordinates oneself to peer pressure.

Hornsey and coworkers conducted several studies that tested the attractiveness of various dating scenarios.

Image: Emilie Hendryx (PublicDomainPictures / pixabay)

They used popular dating apps, sites and showed participants profiles of potential dates that were conformist or non-conformist in their clothes, attitudes and tastes.

In all cases, men and women preferred non-conformist partners.

In other studies, the participants completed personality questionnaires and rated their success in getting to know each other.

Women who said they were more independent reported greater success in dating.

Hornsey said: on the rare occasions where results varied for male and female participants, it was the women who benefited most from non-conformism.

He said the findings were overwhelmingly positive for the women and broke some long-held myths.

“A cursory look at etiquette, courting, and ‘correctness’ of the early 20th century reveals an expectation that women should be submissive, humble, and agreeable,” he said in Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin.

But the times have changed. Society now tells us that independence is a sign of integrity and strong character, he continues.

The old gender stereotype – that men find conformist, submissive women attractive – is slowly dying out.

“The consequence could still be that women curb themselves when dating, even though it would be better for them to just be themselves.”

© PSYLEX.de – source: University of Queensland, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Society for Personality and Social Psychology; April 2015

Or: why does the cocky guy get the girl?

06/17/2015 Researchers Sean Murphy and Professor Bill von Hippel from the Department of Psychology at the University of Queensland and colleagues investigated the connection between overconfidence and romantic desirability in men and women.

People are more likely to rate overconfidence as being unattractive, Murphy said. “But our work shows that confidence is such a powerful signal that being overconfident can actually help,” he said in Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin.

The researchers conducted a series of online experiments with more than 3,000 male and female panelists and measured their confidence. The subjects then wrote dating profiles that were rated by participants of the opposite sex.

Overly confident people were, on average, viewed as a mix of highly-desirable self-confidence and highly-undesirable arrogance, Murphy said.

A key issue appeared to be whether there were competitors for the desired “romantic goal”.

Women didn’t necessarily find the cocky men more attractive at first.

However, when the men were given the opportunity to compete their profile against that of others, they were less willing to compete against the cocky guys. Overly confident participants, on the other hand, were more willing to compete against others.

Computer simulations based on the findings showed that overestimating men are more likely to succeed with women in a competitive environment such as a crowded bar or club. Because they are less likely to give in when competing for their attention and are more likely to enter the ‘competition’ stronger.

The researchers also found that cockiness doesn’t just work for men; women who overestimate themselves are equally effective in deterring other women.

“Our study could answer one of those age-old questions, ‘What on earth is she doing with this?’ Said Murphy.

© PSYLEX.de – source: University of Queensland, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin; June 2015

July 7th, 2018 A study published in the journal Psychological Science examined the preferences online daters have with regard to the education of potential partners.

In their psychological research, Stephen Whyte from the University of Queensland and colleagues analyzed the data of 41,936 female and male members of an online dating portal on their educational preferences in their prospective partner.